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Insemnari de la Jilava: The Prison Diary of Corneliu Zelea Codreanu
Insemnari de la Jilava (Notes from Jilava) is a book written by Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, the leader of the Romanian fascist movement known as the Iron Guard. The book consists of his diary entries from April 19 to May 10, 1938, when he was imprisoned in Jilava Fort, a military prison near Bucharest. Codreanu was arrested on April 15, 1938, by the regime of King Carol II, who accused him of plotting a coup d'etat. Codreanu was later killed on November 30, 1938, in a staged escape attempt orchestrated by the authorities.
In his diary, Codreanu describes his daily life in prison, his thoughts on politics, religion, history and philosophy, his interactions with other inmates and guards, and his hopes for the future of Romania and his movement. He also expresses his devotion to God and his faith in the destiny of his nation. The book is considered a testament of his ideals and a source of inspiration for his followers and admirers.
The book was first published in 1940 by the Iron Guard's publishing house, Majadahonda. It was banned by the communist regime after World War II and circulated clandestinely among the anti-communist resistance. It was reprinted several times after the fall of communism in 1989 and translated into various languages, including English, French, Spanish and German.
The book can be downloaded for free from the Internet Archive[^1^] or other online sources[^2^] [^3^] [^4^]. It is also available in print from some bookstores and online retailers.
Corneliu Zelea Codreanu was born on September 13, 1899, in Husi, a town in Moldavia, then part of the Kingdom of Romania. His father, Ion Zelea Codreanu, was a German teacher and a Romanian nationalist who had changed his surname from Zelinski to Codreanu. His mother, Elizabeth Brunner, was of German and Polish descent. Codreanu had two brothers and a sister.
Codreanu attended high school in Iasi and Bucharest, where he became involved in nationalist student organizations. He also joined the Romanian Orthodox Church and developed a strong religious conviction. He studied law and political science at the University of Iasi and later at the University of Bucharest. He graduated in 1922 and became a lawyer.
In 1923, he founded the National-Christian Defense League (LANC), a political party that advocated for the rights of ethnic Romanians and opposed the influence of Jews and other minorities in Romania. He also created a paramilitary wing of the LANC, called the Archangel Michael Legion or the Legion of the Archangel Michael (also known as the Iron Guard), which engaged in violent actions against Jews and communists. Codreanu became known as \"the Captain\" among his followers.
Codreanu's political career was marked by constant clashes with the authorities and the rival parties. He was arrested several times and faced trials for his involvement in violent incidents, such as the assassination of the police prefect Constantin Manciu in 1924, the murder of the Prime Minister Ion G. Duca in 1933, and the attack on the Minister of Justice Ion InculeÈ in 1937. He also faced opposition from King Carol II, who saw him as a threat to his authoritarian rule and his alliance with the National Peasants' Party.
In 1938, Codreanu was arrested again and sentenced to 10 years of hard labor for sedition. He was transferred to Jilava prison, where he wrote his prison diary, Insemnari de la Jilava, which was later published as a book. On November 30, 1938, he and 13 of his closest associates were killed by the gendarmerie in a staged escape attempt near TÃncÄbeÈti forest. Their bodies were buried secretly in a mass grave at Jilava.
Codreanu's death sparked a wave of protests and violence from his followers, who considered him a martyr and a saint. The Iron Guard continued its activities under the leadership of Horia Sima, who allied with Nazi Germany during World War II and briefly participated in the National Legionary State government in 1940-1941. After the war, many Legionnaires fled Romania and formed exile groups in various countries. Codreanu's legacy remains controversial and divisive in Romania and abroad. ec8f644aee