Rokeach The Nature Of Human Values Pdf
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A Review of Rokeach's The Nature of Human Values
In his book The Nature of Human Values, Milton Rokeach (1973) presents a comprehensive theory of human values, based on empirical research and philosophical analysis. He defines values as enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. He argues that values are the core concept across all the social sciences, as they influence both individual and collective attitudes and behaviors. He also proposes a classification of 36 values into two types: terminal values, which refer to desirable goals or outcomes, and instrumental values, which refer to desirable modes of conduct or means to achieve terminal values.
Rokeach's book is divided into three parts. The first part provides a theoretical framework for understanding the nature and structure of human values. He discusses the origins, functions, and measurement of values, as well as the relations between values and other psychological constructs, such as needs, motives, attitudes, and personality traits. He also introduces his Rokeach Value Survey (RVS), a self-report instrument that assesses the relative importance of 18 terminal and 18 instrumental values for an individual. The second part reports the results of several empirical studies that used the RVS to examine the value systems of different groups of people, such as students, teachers, religious leaders, political activists, and prisoners. He analyzes how values vary across cultures, social classes, genders, ages, and situations, and how they relate to various social issues, such as prejudice, conformity, altruism, and aggression. The third part explores the implications and applications of his value theory for various fields of inquiry and practice, such as sociology, psychology, education, politics, religion, and ethics.
The Nature of Human Values is a landmark work in the study of human values. It offers a comprehensive and coherent theory that integrates philosophical and empirical perspectives on this important topic. It also provides a useful tool for measuring and comparing value systems across individuals and groups. The book is written for both academic and general audiences, and it is suitable as a textbook for courses on human values in various disciplines. It is also a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners who are interested in understanding and influencing human values.
One of the main contributions of Rokeach's book is his identification of two universal value dimensions: self-transcendence versus self-enhancement, and conservation versus openness to change. Self-transcendence values reflect a concern for the welfare and interests of others, such as benevolence, universalism, and social justice. Self-enhancement values reflect a concern for one's own interests and achievements, such as power, achievement, and hedonism. Conservation values reflect a preference for stability, security, and tradition, such as conformity, security, and tradition. Openness to change values reflect a preference for novelty, creativity, and change, such as self-direction, stimulation, and variety. Rokeach argues that these value dimensions are derived from basic human needs and motivations, and that they can explain many individual and social phenomena.
Another important contribution of Rokeach's book is his analysis of the dynamics and consequences of value change. He proposes that value change can occur through three main processes: conversion, displacement, and reordering. Conversion refers to the adoption of a new value or the rejection of an old value. Displacement refers to the substitution of one value for another within the same value type. Reordering refers to the change in the relative importance of values within the same value type. Rokeach also discusses the factors that can induce or inhibit value change, such as cognitive dissonance, social influence, education, media exposure, life events, and personal experiences. He suggests that value change can have significant effects on individual and social behavior, such as attitude change, behavioral change, identity change, and social change. ec8f644aee